Friday, June 17, 2011

How to Avoid the Teflon Architecture Syndrome

So you've sent all of your budding architects on TOGAF (or similar) training, hired in some expensive consultants in sharp suits to tell you how to "do architecture" and bought a pile of expensive software tools (no doubt from multiple vendors) for creating all those architecture models  you've been told about but for some reason you're still not getting any better productivity or building the more reliable systems you were expecting from all this investment. You're still building siloed systems that don't inter-work, you're still misinterpreting stakeholder requests and every system you build seems to be "one-of-a-kind", you're not "leveraging reuse" and SOA seems to be last years acronym you never quite got the hang of. So what went wrong? Why isn't architecture "sticking" and why does it seem you have given yourselves a liberal coating of Teflon.

The plain fact of the matter is that all this investment will not make one jot of difference if you don't have a framework in place that allows the architects in your organisation to work together in a consistent and repeatable fashion. If it is to be effective the architecture organisation needs careful and regular sustenance. So, welcome to my architecture sustenance framework*.



Here's how it works, taking each of the above containers one at a time:
  • Common Language: Architects (as do any professionals) need to speak the same, common language. This needs to be the foundation for everything they do. Common languages can come from standards bodies (UML and SPEM are from the OMG, IEEE 1471-2000 is the architecture description standard from the IEEE) or may be ones your organisation has developed and is in your own glossary.
  • Community: Communities are where people come together to exchange ideas, share knowledge and create intellectual capital (IC) that can be shared more broadly in the organisation. Setting up an architecture Community of Practice (CoP) where your thought leaders can share ideas is vital to making architecture stick and become pervasive. Beware the Ivory Tower Antipattern however.
  • Tools: If communities are to be effective they need to use tools that allow them to create and share information (enterprise social networking tools, sometimes referred to as Enterprise 2.0). They also need tools that allow them to create and maintain delivery processes and manage intellectual capital of all types.
  • Processes: Anything but a completely trivial system will need some level of system development lifecycle (SDLC) that enables it creation and brings a level of ceremony that the project team should follow. An SDLC brings order to the chaos that would otherwise ensue if people working on the project do not know what role they are meant to perform, what work products they are meant to create or what tasks they are meant to do to create those work products. Ideally processes are defined by a community that understands, not only the rules of system development, but also what will, and what will not, work in the organisation. Processes should be published in a method repository so that everyone can easily access them.
  • Guidance: Guidance is what actually enables people to do their jobs. Whereas a process shows what to create when, guidance shows how to create that content. Guidance can take many forms but some of the most common is examples (how did someone else do it), templates (show me what I need to do so I don't start with a blank sheet every time) and guidelines (provide me with a step-by-step guide on how to perform my task) and tool mentors (how can I make use of a tool to perform this task and create my work product). Guidance should be published in the same (method) repository as the process so it is easy to jump between what I do as well as how I do it.
  • Projects: A project is the vehicle for actually getting work done. Projects follow a process, produce work products (using guidance) to deliver a system. Projects (i.e. the work products they produce) are also published in a repository though ideally this will separate from the generic method repository. Projects are "instances" of a delivery process which is configured in a particular way for that project. The project repository stores the artefacts from the project which serve as examples for others to use as they see fit.
  • Project and Method Repositories: The place where the SDLC and the output of multiple projects is kept. These should be well publicized as the place people know to go to to find out what to do as well as what others have done on other projects.
All of the above elements really do need to be in place to enable architecture (and architects) to grow and flourish in an organisation. Whilst these alone are not a guarantee of success without them your chances of creating an effective architecture team are greatly reduced.

*This framework was developed with my colleague at IBM, Ian Turton.

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